Science KS4

Welcome to the Tunnelworks KS4 Science area.

Here you’ll find three ‘essentials’ lessons, complete with interactive online content, student worksheets and detailed lesson plans. Each lesson challenges students to solve a realistic engineering problem to help design, build or operate the Thames Tideway Tunnel.

After that, you can ‘dig deeper’ with follow-up ideas for more lessons for more able students.

Finally, a CREST silver project is outlined, if you wish to connect your work to this well regarded science award scheme.

Essentials
Explore waves and ultrasound to help test a water level sensor for the Tunnel. Use energy, efficiency, power and circuits to plan a ventilation system to keep air in the Tunnel fresh. Consider a crane and load to review and apply understanding of energy changes, forces, work and power.

Dig Deeper
Dig Deeper ideas explore movement and energy in the water that moves through the Tunnel, and the opportunities and limitations for powering the fans using energy from the wind. They also ask pupils to calculate the real power required to lift the load at the same rates using different values of efficiency.

CREST Silver Award
Research projects: research and design a fan system to maintain a constant airflow through a pipe or build a prototype or proof of concept demonstration for an autonomous Tunnel Inspector.

Introducing the Thames Tideway Tunnel

Watch the video to find out why we need to clean up the River Thames.

Science KS4 Lesson 1: Ultrasound

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Science KS4 Lesson 1: Ultrasound

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Screen 1.1: The main Tunnel links all the Combined Sewer Overflows (CSOs). Each site will have ventilation structures at ground level. The Tunnel needs to meet strict regulations for air emissions quality. Click next to explore how ventilation systems in the Tunnel operate.

Science KS4 Lesson 1: Ultrasound

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Screen 1.2: The Tunnel will include different types of ventilation. At Abbey Mills, we will install one of the main ventilation systems. This will draw air through the Tunnel when it’s empty. The air will enter the Tunnel at Blackfriars Bridge.

Science KS4 Lesson 1: Ultrasound

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Screen 1.3: It’s also important to know how much water is captured in the Tunnel, to ensure we can prevent additional flows entering the Tunnel once it is full, and to regulate the air management system.

Science KS4 Lesson 1: Ultrasound

Screen 2: Meet Matt at the Hammersmith pumping station and hear him discuss the importance of ultrasonic sensors in measuring depth and volume.

Science KS4 Lesson 1: Ultrasound

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a) Transverse b) Longitudinal

Screen 3.1: Ultrasound is a type of sound that’s too high-pitched for us to hear. Click on the right answer.

Science KS4 Lesson 1: Ultrasound



Waves have a wavelength λ, frequency f and speed v.
Which line shows the wavelength of this longitudinal wave?

A
B
C
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Click on the right letter to see if you’re correct.


What’s the right way to calculate the speed v of this wave?

a) v = λ / f b) v = f x λ >c) v = f / λ d) v = λf2

Screen 3.2: Look at the diagram and explore the relationship between wave speed, wavelength and frequency.

Science KS4 Lesson 1: Ultrasound

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What could the sensor measure as a way to calculate the distance?

a) Frequency b) Number of wavelengths c) Time taken d) Wavelength

Screen 3.3: Sensors send out pulses that bounce back when they hit a reflective surface. Click next to see how the pulse shortens as the water level rises.

Science KS4 Lesson 1: Ultrasound

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What could the sensor measure as a way to calculate the distance?

a) Frequency b) Number of wavelengths c) Time taken d) Wavelength

Screen 3.4: Sensors send out pulses that bounce back when they hit a reflective surface.

Science KS4 Lesson 1: Ultrasound

Screen 4: Did you get the answers right? Play the video to find out.

Science KS4 Lesson 2: Energy, efficiency, power & circuits

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Science KS4 Lesson 2: Energy, efficiency, power & circuits

Screen 1: Here's Patricia, an Environmental Impact and Assessment Coordinator (EIA) on the Thames Tideway Tunnel. Play the video to find out how her team aim to reduce the environmental impact of the project.

Science KS4 Lesson 2: Energy, efficiency, power & circuits

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Screen 2.1: Every site along the Thames Tideway Tunnel will include ventilation, to keep the Tunnel free from odours. At main ventilation points like Abbey Mills Pumping Station, fans will draw air though the Tunnel so all the air is replaced once each day.

Science KS4 Lesson 2: Energy, efficiency, power & circuits

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Screen 2.2: The system needs the right fans connected in the right way, so this important feature performs to specification. What energy conversions happen in a fan like this?

Science KS4 Lesson 2: Energy, efficiency, power & circuits


Sankey diagrams are a good way to show efficiency.
Engineers use inspection lamps to light up what they are working on.
Here are Sankey diagrams for two choices of inspection lamp:

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Which inspection lamp will use the energy in its batteries more efficiently?
Click on the diagram you think is correct.

Screen 2.3: It's important that the Thames Tideway Tunnel can be operated efficiently. This minimises costs and the effect on the environment, from using energy to operate fixed machinery like ventilation fans.

Science KS4 Lesson 2: Energy, efficiency, power & circuits

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Screen 2.4: Electrical Engineers have to choose the right circuit to allow equipment to work properly and safely.

Science KS4 Lesson 2: Energy, efficiency, power & circuits

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Screen 2.5: Electrical Engineers have to choose the right circuit to allow equipment to work properly and safely.

Science KS4 Lesson 2: Energy, efficiency, power & circuits

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Circuit breakers are designed to 'blow' in case of an increased
current, before damage can occur to equipment.

A motor drawing 12A needs a circuit breaker to protect it.
What would be the right value to use?

a) 12A b) 10A c) 16A d) 13A

Screen 3: Engineers design safety into their systems and circuits.

Science KS4 Lesson 2: Energy, efficiency, power & circuits

Screen 4: Play the video to find out which fan you should have chosen and why.

Science KS4 Lesson 3: Energy, forces, work and power

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Science KS4 Lesson 3: Energy, forces, work and power

Screen 1: Watch the video to learn about the work you will be doing in this lesson.

Science KS4 Lesson 3: Energy, forces, work and power

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Screen 2a: This crane is lifting a skip of material from the base of the shaft to the surface. What energy changes take place during the skip’s journey?

Science KS4 Lesson 3: Energy, forces, work and power

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Screen 2b: This crane is lifting a skip of material from the base of the shaft to the surface. What energy changes take place during the skip’s journey?

Science KS4 Lesson 3: Energy, forces, work and power

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Screen 3a: While the skip is stationery in the air, what forces act on it? What can you say about these forces? When the crane has lifted the skip from the base to the surface, what work has been done?

Science KS4 Lesson 3: Energy, forces, work and power

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Screen 3b: While the skip is stationery in the air, what forces act on it? What can you say about these forces? When the crane has lifted the skip from the base to the surface, what work has been done?

Science KS4 Lesson 3: Energy, forces, work and power

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Screen 4a: Work and energy are both measured in joules. Power is the energy used or created per second, measured in watts. How can you calculate the power of the crane?

Science KS4 Lesson 3: Energy, forces, work and power

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Screen 4b: Work and energy are both measured in joules. Power is the energy used or created per second, measured in watts. How can you calculate the power of the crane?

Science KS4 Lesson 3: Energy, forces, work and power

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Screen 5: Worksheet answers

Science KS4 Lesson 3: Energy, forces, work and power

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Screen 6: Worksheet answers

Science KS4 Lesson 3: Energy, forces, work and power

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Screen 7: Worksheet answers